Bird Blue

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This is a product assessment for Bird Blue. Many shoppers don"t straightaway think of eBay when it comes to Bird Blue, but in fact eBay is amongst the top three retailers in the nations marketplace. Be amazed with the items you will discover here at Contemporary Art Glass.

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$112.49
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Decorative Blue Glassware Bird Swan Dish Toothpick Holder
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Art Glass Bird Figurine Paperweight Yellow Blue with Black Head 5 x 35 Tall
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3 Ron Ray Signed Blue Bird of Happiness Glass Figurines 2 1993 and 1 1992
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Clear Glass paperweight with black bird on light blue swirl unique looking
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1998 Ron Ray signed Bluebird Blue Bird of Happiness Candle Holder 2 Terra
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Large Rare Rainbow Glass Blue Owl with Orange Eyes
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2 TITAN ART GLASS HAPPY LITTLE BLUEBIRDS ART GLASS LOVE BIRDS 1996
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2008 Terra Studios The Original Blue Bird of Happiness Handmade Bird Art Glass
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Murano Venetian Glass Dish Roadrunner Bird Amber Blue Great Condition
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BLUE BIRD OF HAPPINESS GLASS FIGURINE by LEO WARD
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American glass bird house red white and blue handcrafted bird house
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Joe St Clair Paperweight Sulfide Bird Blue Ribbon Wreath Cut 3 Tall Signed
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Solid Blue Glass Hand Made Bird Figurine Paperweight Signed Particep 1992
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$20.00
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$239.00
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Murano Bird in Green Blue and Clear Glass Mid Century Modern Vintage 1950s
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$49.00
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Blue Bird of Happiness Signed W Ward 1995 Small Glass Figurine
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$15.00
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JOE RICE 1988 ART GLASS PAPERWEIGHT BIRD PAPERWEIGHT WITH LIGHT BLUE DESIGN
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$18.00
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TERRA STUDIOS 1991 Blue Bird of Happiness Figurine SIGNED by Lee Ward
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1998 Blue Glass Bird On Nest Ashtray Signed
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$44.99
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Vintage Art glass Blue Birds Ron Ray 1989 1992
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Bluebird of Happiness 2 Love Birds on Heart Blue Glass
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LALIQUE FRANCE CRYSTAL BLUE CRESTED HEAD UP PIMLICO BIRD
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HAND BLOWN GLASS MURANO STYLE BIRD BLUE AND CLEAR EXCELLENT CONDITION
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$12.00
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Rooster Art Glass Hand Blown Sculpture Statue Chicken Hen Bird Blue Home Decor
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Pair of Leo Ward blue glass Birds of Happiness
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$7.50
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Art Glass Cobalt Blue Bird w Quote EVERY DAWN BRINGS A NEW PROMISE FOR TODAY
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LEO WARD SIGNED 1983 BLUE BIRD GLASS CANDLE HOLDER
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FENTON ART GLASS 2004 CANAAN VALLEY BIRD ON COBALT FIGURINE MIB
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GCA Large Art Glass Pelican Bird Blue Figurine XL 105 in high 85 in long
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Salviati  Co Italy Art Glass Bird Candlestick 4 Tall Clear Blue Green
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$40.00
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VINTAGE LARGE BLUE BIRD OF HAPPINESS COLLECTIBLE BLUE SOLID GLASS PAPERWEIGHT
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Blue Bird and blue vase made from Blue Glass very cute decorations
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Vintage Blue Bird Stained Glass on stand
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$14.00
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2 Blue Glass Birds Signed J Abrajan 1990 hand blown Beautiful
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$9.20
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2 Blue Glass Birds Signed W Ward 1989 w label  92 hand blown candleholder
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Chicken Blue White  Bird Yellow White hand blown glass
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$7.34
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2 Blue Glass Birds Signed Ron Ray 1991 hand blown Beautiful
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$11.06
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Mantorp Sweden Blue Bubble Bird Studio Art Glass Scandinavian Glass Paperweight
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Blue Glass Bird Scalloped Dish 6 quarter  Long
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$15.00
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ALTAGLASS HAND MADE BLUE BIRD PAPERWEIGHT BOTH STICKERS COLLECTION
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Murano Venetian Glass Pheasant Roadrunner Bird Amber Blue Orig Label Figurine
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Vintage Signed Glass Blue Birds Ron Ray 1992
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Vintage Maude and Bob St Clair Glass Blue Bird Paperweight
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Fenton Iridescent White Pearl Bird Figurine W Blue Rose and Ribbon
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GLASS PAPERWEIGHTS COBALT BLUE WHALE + COBALT BLUE BIRD Attractive
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VINTAGE CROWN DUCAL WARE BLUE BIRD CHINTZ SNACK PLATE MORE AVAILABLE
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RARE Arabia Finland Sculpture BLUE Bird Howard Smith SIGNED VHTF Mid Century
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Vintage Fenton Carnival Glass Bird  Cherries Blue Nappy Candy Dish Cherry Bowl
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HEREND PORCELAIN HANDPAINTED ROTHSCHILD BIRD BLUE BORDER BEER MUG SET 6 pcs
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Bluebird Fused Glass Plate Cobalt Bird Artist Signed 8
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BLUE BIRD Handled Oval VEGETABLE BOWL
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BEAUTIFUL VINTAGE BLUE BIRD OF HAPPINESS FIGURINE ART GLASS SIGNED RON RAY 1992
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Fenton 2003 Museum Collection Blue Burmese Bird w Violets
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Fenton BIRD Blue Slag Irid FROSTY PINECONES  BERRIES OOAK FREEusaSHIP
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Fenton BIRD Blue Satin PASTEL FLORAL OOAK FREEusaSH
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Bird Blue

See More About:    Wedgwood Williamsburg        Tray Germany        Sulphide Paperweight        
Naruto Blue Bird

Multicultural approach to Korean contemporary music with the traditional folk song bird, bird, blue bird.

From the end of the 1980s, music educators began to advocate
Praxial philosophy that music education must extend beyond the Western
art tradition to account for all forms of musical praxis. As a result,
multiculturalism in music education integrates various cultural style
perspectives and has been expanded throughout the world.

As multiculturalism expands, music teachers are looking for more
ethnic music materials. This happens not only with general music
teachers, but also with piano teachers. In order to further
multiculturalism in music education, we, as music educators, need to
include as much diversity as possible, including Korean music. However,
it is not easy to find Korean music outside the country, either for
classroom use or for piano studio use and the lack of teaching materials
may lead the music educators to teach without the fundamental musical
understanding. When Barbara G. Bowman (2008), (1) a general music and
choral teacher in Staunton, Virginia, searched for Korean music to use
in the classroom, she noted that there were few examples even in the
master index of songs. Besides, there is a misunderstanding that Korean
music is "the same as Chinese music, or that Japanese music had an
influence on Korean music during the Japanese colonial rule." (2)
Therefore, it is necessary to inform music educators of the intrinsic
value of Korean traditional music in order to reinforce multiculturalism
in music education.

WHY DO WE WANT TO USE KOREAN MUSIC IN THE STUDIOS OR CLASSROOMS?

These days, many people in the world pay attention to the potential
ability of the Korean people, who have made such remarkable progress in
many areas. For example, the Republic of Korea took a significant role
to serve as a leading country for the G20 Seoul Summit in 2010, even
though it was more focused on the economy. In addition, there is a
Korean Language Test as part of the SAT for high school students, due to
the wide increase of Korean-American population and an interest in the
Korean Language in the United States. (3) Young Korean musicians win
many international music competitions, such as Tchaikovsky competition
and Elizabeth competition, to name a few. People have shown more
interest in Korean music and culture through the influence of the
"Korean Wave" or "K-pop," which refers to the
significantly increased popularity of South Korean culture around the
world, (4) advanced by multiculturalism.

However, despite numerous Korean musical heritages, people have
rarely heard any type of Korean music outside of Korea except, perhaps,
Arirang, one of the representative Korean folk tunes. Some Korean
composers have adapted traditional Korean folk songs in their
compositions by transforming the original material to varying degrees,
from simple harmonic elaborations of monophonic melodies, to a more
complete assimilation of the folk idiom into the contemporary Western
style. However, it is not easy for music teachers or students to find
the proper level of pieces for beginners and intermediates--even for the
Koreans--as most of them are composed for the professional artist's
level.

Therefore, we are going to introduce one of the most famous Korean
folk tunes, Bird, Bird, Blue Bird (See Figure 1), in various performance
types and levels. In addition we are going to provide teaching tips and
related historical background of the song for music educators who
attempt to incorporate multicultural experiences in their general music
classes or piano studios. The reason for selecting this folk tune is the
fact that it is easy to remember for people with different cultural
backgrounds because it is simply composed of three-notes in slow tempo.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Through the study of this unique Korean folk tune, students will be
able to explore an ethnic musical experience, such as its interesting
melodic, rhythmic, harmonic features and the related historic background
of the song. Teachers will also benefit by acquainting themselves with
this piece in depth and will be able to apply this teaching strategy to
other Korean musical materials.

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF KOREAN FOLK MUSIC

Korean traditional music, in general, can be divided into two
categories: Chong-ak (music for the upper class) and Minsog-ak (music
for the common people). (5) To understand Korean traditional music,
first of all, it is necessary to understand unique rhythmic patterns.
The repetitive rhythmic patterns, which are called Changdan (basically
meaning "length"), are frequently used to serve as a tool to
accompany instrumental, vocal or folk music.

The Chong-ak Changdans, usually, stay in a very steady tempo. (6)
However, those Changdans will not be explained in detail as it is a
feature more closely identified with the Korean traditional folk music.

The Minsog-ak Changdans can easily be changed depending on the
performer's ability to control the tempo or to depict the
atmosphere of the music. There are many different types of Minsog-ak
Changdan: Chinyangjo, Chungmori, Chungjungmori, Chajinmori, Hyumori,
Danmori, Utmori, Kutkori, SemachTand Dongsalpuri'. (7) (See Table
1)

All of the Changdans are accompanied by Changgu, one of the
representative percussive instruments in Korean traditional music, and
are used to express the mood of the music and to keep the tempo in many
different types of Korean music.

Secondly, it is also important to understand the use of the
pentatonic scale in Korean traditional music. The pentatonic scale, as
the name indicates, is a five-note scale. It was often used in the music
of oriental cultures, the history of which is perhaps longer than that
of the diatonic scale system in the West. The most frequently used
pentatonic scale consists of whole steps and whole-and-a-half steps. It
is best illustrated with the five black keys on the keyboard starting on
f-sharp, and may be transposed to the white keys as shown below. (See
Figure 2)

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

KOREAN FOLK TUNE, BIRD, BIRD, BLUE BIRD

1 Historical Background of Bird, Bird, Blue Bird reflecting Korean
Modern History

Bird, Bird, Blue Bird, as a form of Minsog-ak (music for the common
people), is one of the most popular Korean folk tunes and is considered
in the society to be one of Korea's heartbreaking folk tunes. Its
pitch and rhythm can vary according to the regions where the tune is
sung. The original tune with the text is as follows. (See Figure 3)

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

There are two different assumptions about the history of the folk
song Bird, Bird, Blue Bird. The first assumption is that the song is
related to the Donghak-Hyeokmyung, a war that took place between Korea
and Japan in 1894. Korean people sang this song, Bird, Bird, Blue Bird,
during the Donghak-Hyeokmyung with the hope of achieving victory and in
remembrance of their fallen leader, Bongjun Chun (1854-1895). In the
context of the song, the blue bird represents the Japanese army because
they wore blue military uniforms. The bean plant represents Bongjun Chun
who was the leader of the war, and jelly makers represent the Korean
people. The second assumption is that the song ultimately derives from
one of the ancient children's song Dara-Dara- Balgeun-Dara (Moon,
Moon, What a Bright Moon!) and that Korean people in ancient society
might have changed the text and sang it based on the same melody.

2 Melodic and Harmonic Characteristics of Bird, Bird, Blue Bird

Bird, Bird, Blue Bird may be justified as being based on the
pentatonic scale, but this folksong is made up simply of three different
notes. The simplicity of the melody must be the reason that this song
has been fascinating to native Koreans for generations. This melodic
simplicity comprises only three types of intervals: perfect 4th, perfect
5th and major 2nd (See Figure 4). In its harmonic analysis, it may be
described either as a quartal or a quintal chord in Western harmony
depending on the order the notes are put together, as shown below (See
Figure 5). This intervallic characteristic makes the song much more
modernistic, even though it is fundamentally a folk tune.

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]

The following music score has been taken from the album of Sumi Jo
(8), one of the representative Korean sopranos. (See Figure 6) It is
surprising that a simple folk tune can transform into such a refined
style along with the modern harmonic accompaniment. This excerpt can be
utilized by piano or guitar accompaniment in a general music class.

[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]

3 Rhythmic characteristics of Bird, Bird, Blue Bird

Selecting a Changdan, a repetitive rhythmic pattern that matches
with Bird, Bird, Blue Bird, among all the different types of Changdan,
Semach'I Changdan fits best into the song Bird, Bird, Blue Bird.
Semach'I usually fits into the triple rhythmic pattern. This
rhythmic accompaniment can get along with the melody as illustrated
below (See Figure 7).

[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]

SELECTED WORKS IN DIFFERENT COMPOSITIONAL TYPE, BASED ON THE THEME
OF BIRD, BIRD, BLUE BIRD

Many Korean composers have adapted Western compositional styles and
mixed those styles with the traditional musical elements of Korean music
into their own works. In selected Korean repertoire, we can find how
composers used the traditional folk tunes in their works. The following
are examples of this practice:

1 Piano Solo: Variation on the theme of Bird, Bird, Blue Bird
Composed by Sang-Keun Lee (1922-2000)

This solo piano work was composed in 1987 consisting of five
variations based on the theme of Bird, Bird, Blue Bird. Sang-Keun Lee
(1922-2000) is a Korean composer who has adapted Western compositional
styles to Korean music for about 50 years. This work is recommended to
students who are between the late-intermediate and the early-advanced
level. Only the main theme of the variations is presented in this study
(See Figure 8). (9)

The main theme consists of nine measures and there are two phrases
in it. While the first phrase is stated in the middle range in a single
melodic line (mm. 1-4), the second phrase is stated one octave higher
with intense dynamics (mm. 5-9).

The most attractive feature of this work is the meter change in
every two measures from 5/4 to 4/4 which lends a modernistic feel. The
frequent use of dissonance in the left part adds modernistic color to
the old-fashioned folk tune. In addition, the rhythmic diversity between
the steady quarter notes on the right and the subdivided triple 8th
notes on the left elevates the difficulty of this work.

Teaching Or Practicing Tip

The approach for the piece in applied teaching can start with
learning a tune of Bird, Bird, Blue Bird. The student should be required
to listen to the tune, to sing, and to get accustomed to the main theme
of the piece before the student tries to play the notes on the piano.
The student also should learn the cultural aspect of the tune. This
process will help the student identify the musical style of the song and
prepare for the performance of multicultural music within the
instrument.

In addition, the student should be ready for the meter changes.
They should try to keep each phrase four measures long, even though the
phrase line is disturbed by the frequent meter changes and the rests in
the middle of melody. They should also play both hands in legato to
express the sentimental emotion and the expressive quality of melodic
line.

[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]

2 Piano Duet: Der blauen Vogel (Blue Bird), Op. 240, No. 3 by
Kuk-Jin Kim (b. 1931)

This work was composed as a part of the Koreaneasche Klangfur Vier
Handen collection, which translates to Korean Music for Piano Duet. (10)
Within the collection, there are 11 pieces in Op. 240 and four pieces in
Op. 245 and all the pieces should be played on one piano by two
pianists. The basic character of all the music in the collection is
based on Korean traditional elements, including folk songs.

Der blauen Vogel (Blue Bird), Op. 240, No. 3 is based on the theme
of the Korean traditional folk tune Bird, Bird, Blue Bird. It is in 5/4
and the main melody of the piece in the lower part of the piano only
consists of three simple notes, A, D, G), derived from the pentatonic
scale. The upper part of the piano contains rolled chords and triplets
(See Figure 9). There is no concept of development based on a motive or
theme, and the piece could easily be played by elementary-level piano
students.

[FIGURE 9 OMITTED]

Teaching Or Practicing Tip

This work is actually a piano duo for three hands, not for four
hands, because the main melody line of the piece is only supposed to be
played by one hand. However, the main melody of the lower part can be
played by octave of the two hands as well. As the main theme is simple
and easy, the lower part can be played by a beginner and the upper part
can be played by a teacher or a more experienced students. It is
suggested to consider the balance between the two parts. The rolling and
triplets accompaniment should not overwhelm the single melody line.

Another teaching approach can be considered if this piece is taught
in the classroom setting. Instead of playing a main melody of the lower
part by the instrument, several students in the class can sing a main
theme of the piece and the accompanist can play the upper part of the
piece on the piano. In this way more students can participate in
experiencing a new traditional folk tune by singing and playing all
together. In addition, the main theme of the melody in the lower part
can be played by a solo instrument, such as a cello, and the accompanist
can play the upper part. By experimenting with a piece through different
combinations of instrument and voice, students can experience more
enjoyable and interesting ways to learn multicultural music in the
general music class.

3 Choral Music: Saeya-Saeya by Kyuhwan Kim (1925-2011)

Saeya-Saeya by Kyuhwan Kim was composed in 1977 as part of a Choral
Collection, "Kyuhwan Kim Choral Music VII (Korean Traditional
Music)." (11) There are 11 pieces in the collection and all the
pieces are arranged for the chorus. All the themes of the music are
based on Korean traditional folk tunes. The collection was published in
2005 through Eumag Chunchu Edition in South Korea.

Saeya-Saeya translates to "Bird, Bird" and is also based
on the theme of the Korean traditional folk tune Bird, Bird, Blue Bird.
The piece starts with 6/4 and changes to 4/4 and then to 2/4. It is
composed for three part treble voices.

There are three sections of the entire piece. In the first section,
the lower part of the voice leads the melodic line and the upper part of
the voice supports the harmonic line, based on the pentatonic scale (See
Figure 10). In the other two sections, there are many Korean traditional
rhythmic patterns, which are called Kutkori (See Table 1). Kutkori
Changdan, in general, consists of 12 beats within one phrase which also
could be expressed in several different ways in terms of tempo.

[FIGURE 10 OMITTED]

Teaching Or Practicing Tip

One of the most important teaching approaches in the choral setting
involves preparation. Before having a rehearsal, a teacher or a director
must prepare for the rehearsal process. It is mandatory that he or she
must understand the text of the song, which should be translated into
English. Then, they should also deal with vocal technique, such as
intonation, dynamics and articulation, to name a few. Coupled with these
features, the balance of the sound could be considered.

In Saeya-Saeya, there are three different tempo changes: Andante
grazioso- Moderato ben portando- Allegretto agitato. All the singers
should be aware of tempo changes. In the first section A, there are two
voices, singing smoothly in two-part canon style: the main theme in the
lower part and the counterpart in the upper part (See Figure 11). In the
other two sections, they are variable. In general music class, as this
folk tune consists of three notes only, students can sing in two-part
canon style to develop their inner hearing.

[FIGURE 11 OMITTED]

CONCLUSION

When we think of multiculturalism in music education, we naturally
tend to search for ethnic-based teaching materials to bring into the
classroom. Many cultures have different styles of music in terms of
rhythm, melody, harmony and so on. To fully understand music, students
need to explore music from many cultures, not only their own. By
studying music from various cultures, students have the opportunity to
learn about different cultures, histories and traditions. Studying many
different musical traditions will help students accept diversity in
their lives. In this respect, Korean folk music easily falls into the
category of multicultural music and may be attractive to educators who
are in search of cultural diversity.

Bird, Bird, Blue Bird in particular has enormous potential to
fulfill this role in multicultural music education and to act as a
strong representative of the Korean musical tradition. It can also serve
to create a connection between new listeners who feel its subtle power,
and the generations of Korean to whom the piece has meant so much.

In order to advance the understanding of multicultural music,
teachers should first open their minds, try to communicate with other
minority teachers to learn their diverse concepts and apply new musical
ideas to multicultural teaching approaches. In addition, music educators
should develop multicultural teaching systems for teachers and students,
and see them put to use in classrooms or studios. Thus, music can be
used as an effective aide to the furtherance of multicultural education.

Notes

(1.) Barbara G. Bowman, "Korean Folk Music in Your
Curriculum," Music Educators Journal 95, no. 1 (2008): 48-53.

(2.) Oh-sung Kwon, "Traditional Music: International
Perspectives," A Quarterly on Korean Art & Culture 12, no. 4
(1998): 18-23.

(3.) http://www, ukopia.com/ukoEducation/?page_code= read&uid=
118201&sid=14&sub=5.

(4.) http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/200411/21/content_393440.htm.

(5.) Seong K. Kim, Introduction to Korean Traditional Music (Seoul:
Eunha Publishing Company, 2004), 51-52.

(6.) Ibid., 122.

(7.) Ibid., 131-133.

(8.) Sumi Jo, "Bird, Bird, Blue Bird," dictated by the
author from Sumi Jo-Korean Favorite Songs, with the Korean Symphony
Orchestra, Nansae Kum, conductor, (Seoul: E&E Media SCC-003PSM.
2001), compact disc.

(9.) Sang-Kuen Lee. Five Variations on a theme of Blue Bird in Sang
Kuen Lee Piano Works, (Seoul: Eumag Chun-Chu Edition, 2001), 26-30.

(10.) Kuk-Jin Kim, "Der Blauen Vogel," Op. 240, No. 3 in
Koreaneasche Klangfur Vier Handen. (Seoul: DongJin Music Publishing Co.,
1997), 8.

(11.) Kyuhwan Kim, "Saeya-Saeya" in Kyuhwan Kim Choral
Music VII." Korean Traditional Music, (Seoul: Eumag Chunchu
Edition, 2005), 11-12.

The works featured in this article can be obtained by contacting
the following agencies:

Eumag Chun-Chu Edition Publishing Co. at chunchu@hanmail.net or by
phone at 011-822-2231-9001/9002/9003

Daihan Music (the most reputable music store in Korea) Aat
dhmusicco@freethal.com or daihanmusic@yahoo.co.kr or by phone at
011-822-776-0577

Eunjung Choi serves as assistant professor of piano and coordinator
of keyboard studies at Claflin University in South Carolina. She holds a
DMA degree in piano pedagogy from the University of South Carolina.

Sumi Kwon is a visiting professor at Hansel University and adjunct
professor of piano and piano pedagogy at Ewha Womans University in South
Korea. She holds MM and DMA degrees as well as EdM and EdD degrees.

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